Step 2: Innovations in Biology and Technology – Writing Assignment (9%) Addresse

Step 2: Innovations in Biology and Technology – Writing Assignment (9%)
Addresses course outcomes 1-4:
recognize and explain how the scientific method is used to solve problems
make observations and discriminate between scientific and pseudoscientific explanations
weigh evidence and make decisions based on strengths and limitations of scientific knowledge and the scientific method
use knowledge of biological principles, the scientific method, and appropriate technologies to ask relevant questions, develop hypotheses, design and conduct experiments, interpret results, and draw conclusions
Write a paper about your chosen topic.
Your paper should consist of a title page, introduction, several paragraphs addressing the questions for your chosen topic, conclusion, and references.
The outline you wrote in step 1 should be your starting point, but you can make edits to the topics and details you include, and the organization of the content. Take advantage of any feedback received.
Your paper should be 750-1500 words, excluding references and the title page.
Use a minimum of three (3) reliable information sources. These may or may not be the same resources that you found in step 1 of this assignment.
The majority of your paper should be written in your own words, your own writing style and structure, fully paraphrasing information from the selected information sources (just changing a few words in a sentence is not enough). Your paper should consist of less than 10% direct quotes. Quotation marks must be used at the start and end of a direct quote, followed by an in-text citation. When paraphrasing, you should also use text citations to acknowledge the source.
A list of references in APA format should be included at the end.
ORINGINAL OUTLINE
The information by Murphy and Atala (2014) presents a general view of 3D printing and how it has evolved in different fields. It is important in this case since it provides an outline to how the complexities of tissue constructions are addressed.
According to Humphreys (2021), the adoption of 3D printing shows remarkable results in areas of kidney organoid generation. The source is important given the address of quality and safe transplant in areas of tissue engineering.
Finally, Tarunen et al. (2018) presents the possible adoption of 3D bioprinting of the kidney. The source is important given the coverage on the future of bioprinting, the bioinks available, and existing strategies and printers.
Assignment Outline
• The adoption of 3D printing; this involves looking at the steps taken to ensure 3D printing is adopted in the field of medicine.
• Bioprinting and applicability in kidney transplant; how has bioprinting solved the problems or challenges of kidney transplant.
• Impacts of kidney failure and the solutions available other than bioprinting; how safe is bioprinting or are there other better solutions in kidney transplant.
• Side effects of bioprinting; what’s the success and failure rates of adopting 3D printing in kidney transplant.
References
Humphreys, B. D. (2021). Bioprinting better kidney organoids. Nature Materials, 20(2), 128-130.
Murphy, S. V., & Atala, A. (2014). 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs. Nature biotechnology, 32(8), 773-785.
Turunen, S., Kaisto, S., Skovorodkin, I., Mironov, V., Kalpio, T., Vainio, S., & Rak-Raszewska, A. (2018). 3D bioprinting of the kidney—hype or hope?. AIMS Cell and Tissue Engineering, 2(3), 119-162
ORGINIAL PAPER
Bioprinting is creating three-dimensional structures that can be used for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (Murphy & Atala, 2014). It is done by printing cells and other biomaterials in a specific pattern using a printer called a bioplotter. The largest benefit of bioprinting is that it can create replacement tissues and organs for patients without surgery or donor organs. Given that bioprinting is an innovation, it comes with different challenges. Current challenges include the need for better bioprinting techniques and bioink formulations that are safe and effective (Murphy & Atala, 2014). To achieve the objectives of bioprinting and developing organs for transplant, stem cells must be used. Stem cells are a key component of bioprinting because they can be used to create new cells and tissues. This technology is still in its early stages, but it is expected to become more common and efficient over the next few years.
The achievement of bioprinting requires several components, including Bioink. Bioink is a liquid or pastes used to support the printing of cells and biomaterials. Bioink formulations can be customized to match the specific needs of each research project (Murphy & Atala, 2014). The printing of cells and biomaterials through bioprinting is an incredibly versatile technology that can create a wide range of medical devices and achieve several milestones. In the case of kidney transplants, bioprinting can be used to fabricate a scaffold for the transplant recipient’s new kidney. The scaffold can help support and heal the new organ, which is crucial in preventing rejection.
According to Humphreys (2021), bioprinting plays a role in kidney organoids (miniature kidneys that can be grown in a laboratory). It can also help to create a scaffold for the new kidney. The organoids are created from induced pluripotent stem cells (i PSCs), which are cells that can be turned into any tissue in the body. Cases of a kidney transplant can be very expensive, and bioprinting could be an important tool in helping to reduce the cost of transplantation. One remarkable principle of 3D printing that makes it adaptable in kidney transplants is that it can create identical copies of the desired object from many different starting materials. This is known as the “multiplexing” of 3D printing. Humphreys (2021) notes that multiplexed bioprinting could be used to produce an immense number of scaffolds, each tailored to fit a specific individual’s needs for a kidney transplant. This would reduce the need for donors’ kidneys and reduce the risk of graft failure and organ rejection.
Nevertheless, bioprinting of tissues currently comes at challenges that include insufficient resolution, low material durability, and lack of standardization (Murphy & Atala, 2014). These challenges need to be addressed if bioprinting becomes a mainstream tool for tissue printing. In addition, there are still many unanswered questions about how 3D printing can be best used to regenerate tissues and whether or not the technology is efficient enough for large-scale tissue production. Human tissues are complex, and it will take time before bioprinting can be fully adopted for regenerative medicine applications (Murphy & Atala, 2014). Be that as it may, the potential benefits of bioprinting are enormous. There is no doubt that researchers are working hard to address the challenges, realize its full potential, and contribute to life-saving and reduced costs of transplants.
Current research in the bioprinting of body tissues shows that the technology can be used in a variety of regenerative medicine applications, including tissue printing, cell therapies, and drug screening. A study by Wragg, Burke, and Wilson (2019) shows that the existing gap between the available organs and the needed organs for transplanting is slowly being closed using 3D printing technology. The study reports that with 3D printing technology, it is now possible to print body organs such as liver, heart, and lung, which would otherwise be too costly or difficult to procure (Wragg, Burke & Wilson, 2019). This is likely to reduce the number of people who need to undergo organ transplants and could lead to significant cost savings for both the NHS and private healthcare providers.
Another study by Turunen et al. (2018) notes that tissues such as cartilage have been successfully printed, raising the hope of adopting 3D printing technology for tissue regeneration. Cartilage is a key component in the body that helps cushion and protects joints, and its loss can lead to osteoarthritis or even a full-blown joint replacement. The study found that by using 3D printing technology, it is possible to print cartilage in a precise and uniform shape, which could help restore lost function in joints. These findings could have a major impact on the field of regenerative medicine and suggest that 3D printing technology may have a role to play in tissue regeneration for humans. This study raises the hope for my father, who has failed to find a match for his kidney problem. It becomes easy to look for an organ match before carrying out a transplant operation.
Finally, my father’s case also highlights a potential issue with the current organ transplant system. He has to find an organ donor before undergoing a transplant operation, but this process is not always straightforward. It can be quite difficult to find an organ donor compatible with my father’s medical condition and who is willing to donate their organs. This is because the organ transplant system is geared toward matching donors with recipients who have the same medical condition, and it can be difficult to find a donor who meets this criterion. In my father’s case, 3D printing looks like a potential solution to this problem. By printing cartilage in a precise and uniform shape, it is possible to create organs compatible with my father’s medical condition. I believe my father’s conditions can be solved if extensive research and authentication are carried out on 3D printing for new body tissues.
References
Humphreys, B. D. (2021). Bioprinting better kidney organoids. Nature Materials, 20(2), 128-130.
Murphy, S. V., & Atala, A. (2014). 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs. Nature Biotechnology, 32(8), 773-785.
Turunen, S., Kaisto, S., Skovorodkin, I., Mironov, V., Kalpio, T., Vainio, S., & Rak-Raszewska, A. (2018). 3D bioprinting of the kidney—hype or hope?. AIMS Cell and Tissue Engineering, 2(3), 119-162.
Wragg, N. M., Burke, L., & Wilson, S. L. (2019). A critical review of current progress in 3D kidney biomanufacturing: Advances, challenges, and recommendations. Renal Replacement Therapy, 5(1), 1-16.

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